Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFIs)

2014

Whom Do Black-Owned Banks Serve?

Russell D. Kashian, Richard McGregory and Derrek Grunfelder McCrank
Communities and Banking

2013

2011

2010

2009

2008

We Just Knock on Doors

Pedro Arce
Communities & Banking, pages 28-30

NOW! The State of Opportunity Finance

Mark Pinksy
Prepared Text for the 24th Annual Opportunity Finance Network Conference

2007

Venture Capital in New England Secondary Cities

Carole Carlson and Prabal Chakrabarti
New England Community Developments, issue 1

Financing Hope

Tracy Fernandez Rysavy and Prianjali Mascarenhas
Yes! Magazine

2006

An Overview of the CDFI Industry

Brandy Curtis
New England Community Developments, issue 2

CDFI Investing Made Easy with CARS

Kathy Stearns
Partners in Community and Economic Development, volume 16, number 3

2005

Transforming Trailers into Assets

Peter Skillern and Tanya Wolfram
Popular Government, pages 4-11

2004

Creating Real Opportunity

Chrissa Shoemaker Debree
Bucks County Courrier Times

2003

2002

Latina Microenterprise and the U.S.- Mexico Border Economy

Bárbara J. Robles
The Estey Centre Journal of International Law and Trade Policy, volume 3, number 2

2001

2000

Interview: Martin Eakes

Lynn Adler and Jim Mayer
Faith, Hope and Capital

Interview: Richard Taub

Lynn Adler and Jim Mayer
Faith Hope and Capital

1998

Microenterprise as an Exit Route from Poverty

Lisa Servon and Timothy Bates
Journal of Urban Affairs, volume 20, number 4, pages 419-441

1993

2015

Small Business Investment Companies: Investment Option for Banks

Ammar Askari

This Community Developments Insights report describes the U.S. Small Business Administration’s (SBA) Small Business Investment Company (SBIC) program, its role in capital markets, and how financial institutions—including national banks and federal savings associations (collectively, banks)—can use the program to expand their small-business finance activities. This report also describes how the SBA licenses these companies, how they operate and are supervised, and the guidelines they should follow. Finally, this report outlines risks and regulatory considerations of bank investments in SBICs and explains how these investments may receive consideration under the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA).

The information in this report was obtained from a variety of sources, including bankers, non-supervised nancial intermediaries, SBICs’ general partners (GP), trade groups, the SBA’s Of ce of Investment and Innovation (OII), and other parties involved with small business investment companies. Appendix E provides a resource directory for additional program information. 

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

Affordable Housing and Asset Development: The Role of Land Ownership in Mobile Home Parks

Sally K. Ward, Charlie French, Kelly Giraud and Paul Bradley
CFED Assets Learning Conference—A Lifetime of Assets: Building Families, Communities & Economies

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2016

Pay for Success: The First Generation

Dana Archer-Rosenthal

Pay for Success: The First Generation provides a look at the ten Pay for Success projects that have launched in the United States–projects that have finalized contracts and financing, and initiated service delivery as of March 2016. It offers detailed comparison of U.S. PFS projects and synthesizes observations on the market’s development to date. It is informed by Nonprofit Finance Fund’s unique and central vantage point in the U.S. Pay for Success arena. This report pulls from PFS contracts and other publically available documents, interviews with stakeholders, and incorporates information and observations gleaned by NFF through its more than five years of experience as a field builder, funding intermediary for PFS project development, and investor. It examines project goals and project design; the partners and stakeholders involved; the underlying data, evidence, and evaluation plans; the governance and investment structures, including repayment terms and investor profiles; and project costs. The report also provides key definitions for some terms, in an effort to further a common language for the PFS eld. 

Broad-Based Ownership Models as Tools for Job Creation and Community Development

Marjorie Kelly, Steve Dubb and Violeta Duncan

As cities wrestle with the growing challenge of wealth inequality, more and more leaders are looking to broad-based ownership models as tools to create jobs and build community wealth. These models are highly effective, with a positive impact for low- and moderate-income individuals and communities. This report looks at six such models—ESOPs, Worker Cooperatives, CDFIs, Social Enterprises, Municipal Ownership, and Emerging Hybrids—with examples of best practices, and explores how these models can be used in community economic development.

2015

Making the Case for Linking Community Development and Health

Edmonds et al

This report, published in partnership by the Center on Social Disparities in Health, the Build Healthy Places Network, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, is a "resource for those working to improve low-income communities and the lives of the people living in them." Despite growing recognition that social and economic conditions are the primary drivers of health, the fields of community development and public health remain siloed. This new report from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s Build Healthy Places Network outlines specific opportunities to integrate the two fields and overcome barriers to collaboration. It also includes recommendations on how to measure the impact of cross-sector collaborations and refine programs accordingly.  

CDFI Futures: An Industry at a Crossroads

Jeremy Nowak
Opportunity Finance Network
This report examines growth obstacles and opportunities within the community development financial institutions (CDFI) industry. The report was motivated by a view among many practitioners and investors that the CDFI industry is at a pivotal time of change in response to new capitalization options, ongoing operating challenges, and shifts in the external environment.

2014

2013

2012

2010

CRA Investment Handbook

Center for Community Development Investments

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

CRA Commitments

National Community Reinvestment Coalition

2004

Report on the Industry 2002

Community Development Venture Capital Association (CDVCA)

New Pathways to Scale for Community Development Finance

Gregory A. Ratliff, Kirsten S. Moy, Laura Casoni, Steve Davidson, Cathie Mahon and Fred Mendez
Profitwise News & Views

2003

2002

2001

2000

n/a

Whom Do Black-Owned Banks Serve?

Russell D. Kashian, Richard McGregory and Derrek Grunfelder McCrank
Communities and Banking

We Just Knock on Doors

Pedro Arce
Communities & Banking, pages 28-30

NOW! The State of Opportunity Finance

Mark Pinksy
Prepared Text for the 24th Annual Opportunity Finance Network Conference

Venture Capital in New England Secondary Cities

Carole Carlson and Prabal Chakrabarti
New England Community Developments, issue 1

Financing Hope

Tracy Fernandez Rysavy and Prianjali Mascarenhas
Yes! Magazine

An Overview of the CDFI Industry

Brandy Curtis
New England Community Developments, issue 2

CDFI Investing Made Easy with CARS

Kathy Stearns
Partners in Community and Economic Development, volume 16, number 3

Transforming Trailers into Assets

Peter Skillern and Tanya Wolfram
Popular Government, pages 4-11

Creating Real Opportunity

Chrissa Shoemaker Debree
Bucks County Courrier Times

Latina Microenterprise and the U.S.- Mexico Border Economy

Bárbara J. Robles
The Estey Centre Journal of International Law and Trade Policy, volume 3, number 2

Interview: Martin Eakes

Lynn Adler and Jim Mayer
Faith, Hope and Capital

Interview: Richard Taub

Lynn Adler and Jim Mayer
Faith Hope and Capital

Microenterprise as an Exit Route from Poverty

Lisa Servon and Timothy Bates
Journal of Urban Affairs, volume 20, number 4, pages 419-441

Small Business Investment Companies: Investment Option for Banks

Ammar Askari

This Community Developments Insights report describes the U.S. Small Business Administration’s (SBA) Small Business Investment Company (SBIC) program, its role in capital markets, and how financial institutions—including national banks and federal savings associations (collectively, banks)—can use the program to expand their small-business finance activities. This report also describes how the SBA licenses these companies, how they operate and are supervised, and the guidelines they should follow. Finally, this report outlines risks and regulatory considerations of bank investments in SBICs and explains how these investments may receive consideration under the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA).

The information in this report was obtained from a variety of sources, including bankers, non-supervised nancial intermediaries, SBICs’ general partners (GP), trade groups, the SBA’s Of ce of Investment and Innovation (OII), and other parties involved with small business investment companies. Appendix E provides a resource directory for additional program information. 

Affordable Housing and Asset Development: The Role of Land Ownership in Mobile Home Parks

Sally K. Ward, Charlie French, Kelly Giraud and Paul Bradley
CFED Assets Learning Conference—A Lifetime of Assets: Building Families, Communities & Economies

Pay for Success: The First Generation

Dana Archer-Rosenthal

Pay for Success: The First Generation provides a look at the ten Pay for Success projects that have launched in the United States–projects that have finalized contracts and financing, and initiated service delivery as of March 2016. It offers detailed comparison of U.S. PFS projects and synthesizes observations on the market’s development to date. It is informed by Nonprofit Finance Fund’s unique and central vantage point in the U.S. Pay for Success arena. This report pulls from PFS contracts and other publically available documents, interviews with stakeholders, and incorporates information and observations gleaned by NFF through its more than five years of experience as a field builder, funding intermediary for PFS project development, and investor. It examines project goals and project design; the partners and stakeholders involved; the underlying data, evidence, and evaluation plans; the governance and investment structures, including repayment terms and investor profiles; and project costs. The report also provides key definitions for some terms, in an effort to further a common language for the PFS eld. 

Broad-Based Ownership Models as Tools for Job Creation and Community Development

Marjorie Kelly, Steve Dubb and Violeta Duncan

As cities wrestle with the growing challenge of wealth inequality, more and more leaders are looking to broad-based ownership models as tools to create jobs and build community wealth. These models are highly effective, with a positive impact for low- and moderate-income individuals and communities. This report looks at six such models—ESOPs, Worker Cooperatives, CDFIs, Social Enterprises, Municipal Ownership, and Emerging Hybrids—with examples of best practices, and explores how these models can be used in community economic development.

Making the Case for Linking Community Development and Health

Edmonds et al

This report, published in partnership by the Center on Social Disparities in Health, the Build Healthy Places Network, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, is a "resource for those working to improve low-income communities and the lives of the people living in them." Despite growing recognition that social and economic conditions are the primary drivers of health, the fields of community development and public health remain siloed. This new report from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s Build Healthy Places Network outlines specific opportunities to integrate the two fields and overcome barriers to collaboration. It also includes recommendations on how to measure the impact of cross-sector collaborations and refine programs accordingly.  

CDFI Futures: An Industry at a Crossroads

Jeremy Nowak
Opportunity Finance Network
This report examines growth obstacles and opportunities within the community development financial institutions (CDFI) industry. The report was motivated by a view among many practitioners and investors that the CDFI industry is at a pivotal time of change in response to new capitalization options, ongoing operating challenges, and shifts in the external environment.

CRA Investment Handbook

Center for Community Development Investments

CRA Commitments

National Community Reinvestment Coalition

Report on the Industry 2002

Community Development Venture Capital Association (CDVCA)

New Pathways to Scale for Community Development Finance

Gregory A. Ratliff, Kirsten S. Moy, Laura Casoni, Steve Davidson, Cathie Mahon and Fred Mendez
Profitwise News & Views